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Causation: words like “since” or “because” that indicate a causal relationship.

Causation: Provide a consequence

These words and phrases introduce a consequence or result. 


After a sentence or paragraph that describes a cause.

  • Thus
  • As such
  • Therefore
  • Consequently
  • As a result
  • Hence
  • Accordingly

Causation: Provide a reason

These words and phrases introduce a reason or cause. 


To begin writing or speaking about a cause and effect relationship. 


When you use these at the beginning of a sentence, you must also include a result or consequence at the end of the sentence.

  • Since + [verb phrase]
  • As + [verb phrase]
  • Because of + [noun phrase]
  • As a result of + [noun phrase]
  • Due to + [noun phrase]
  • Owing to + [noun phrase]
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