Let’s understand conjunctions in English.
In English grammar, a conjunction is a part of speech. A conjunction is used to connect words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjunctions.
There are seven coordinating conjunctions which are by far: and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet.
The coordinating conjunction is the most common conjunction or connector we use. These join two words, phrases, or independent clauses, which are parallel in structure.
It’s easier to memorize the seven Coordinating Conjunctions with the acronym – FANBOYS.
The correlative conjunctions are not only – but also, either– or, neither – nor, both – and, not – but, whether – or etc.
Correlative conjunction uses a set of words in a parallel sentence structure to show a contrast or to compare the equal parts of a sentence. The words of correlative conjunctions have a special connection between them.
A subordinating conjunction joins elements of an unparallel sentence structure. These elements are usually a dependent clause and an independent clause.
As soon as
As long as
In order to
In order that
Compound Conjunction are: so that, provided that, as well as, as soon as, as long as, such that, in order that etc.
Compound Conjunction are conjunctions that have two or three parts. The phrases which are used as conjunctions are called compound conjunctions. Each and every part of these does not have to be conjunctions themselves. The parts become inseparable in the sense that they tend to pop up next to one another more often and not.
Punctuations with Conjunctions
Two independent clauses in a sentence must be separated by a comma and that goes for no matter what conjunction is used. If the clauses attached by the conjunction can stand as complete sentences, a comma must be used between them.
- I’m doing fine, but I have my own struggles.
- You were running the marathon, and I was cheering you on.
- My father was unsure of the result, though he was keeping it together.
While using the Subordinating Conjunctions to attach Dependent and Independent Clauses in a sentence, there are two ways to construct these complex sentences and one of them requires a comma separating the two clauses. The comma becomes an integral part of the sentence when the Subordinating Conjunctions are placed at the start of the sentence.
- (Comma) If you are going for gold, I’ll come with you.
- (No comma) I’ll come with you if you are going for gold.
- (Comma) Though we are running late, we can help you install your home theatre.
- (No comma) We can help you install your home theatre though we are running late.
In the case of Adverbial Conjunctions joining two independent clauses, the most common punctuational practice is to use a semicolon before It and a comma after that while the two complete thoughts are situated on either side. Some opt for two commas on both sides of the conjunction and there is another practice to separate the two clauses with a period while the capitalized conjunction starts the next sentence followed by a comma.
- Sam was worried about the rain; therefore, she didn’t do her laundry today.
- I was there with her 24/7. Moreover, I kept a close eye on her every move.
- Matt was agitated, however, the rest of us were trying to convince him to stay.
A conjunctive adverb connects phrases or independent clauses. They helps to bring together two complete thoughts like some of the other Conjunctions while also being Adverbs themselves. It provides transitions between ideas and shows relationships. They are also called Conjunctive Adverbs.
The conjunctive adverb may look like a coordinate conjunction (and, or, so, but, for), but it is not as strong as a coordinate conjunction. Therefore, the semicolon is used to link the two main clauses, and the comma is used to set off the conjunctive adverb (really an one-word adverb cluster) from its main clause
Conjunctive adverbs are also called connectors.
Use conjunctive adverbs or connectors to:
- indicate a connection between two independent clauses in one sentence
- link the ideas in two or more sentences
- show relationships between ideas within an independent clause.
Let’s have a look at some of the common conjunctive adverbs.
|To compare||To contrast||Time||To emphasize|
In spite of
|To summarize||To exemplify||Effect||Sequence|
- I was looking for a tea stall; additionally, I needed a salon for a complete makeover.
- Tim was banking on his skills as a salesman. Meanwhile, he should have researched the clients.
- I shouted my discomfort out, that is, I didn’t like the stares I was getting.
- Mila was on her way back home, therefore, the world she left behind her didn’t bother her as much.
How to punctuate conjunctive adverbs?
When a conjunctive adverb connects two independent clauses in one sentence, it is preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma.
- I like you a lot; in fact, I think we should be best friends.
- COVID-19 cases increases, say officials, are driven by the mutated version; consequently, vaccination typically covers less than 50% of the population.
If a conjunctive adverb is used in any other position in a sentence, it is set off by commas.
- Nonetheless, some countries have started giving booster dose vaccinations.
- Ms. Bennett, however, maintains proper medication regime.
Adverbs of Time List
This is a list of common single-word time adverbs.
Adverbs of time mainly modify verbs and tell us when something happens.
Points of time (definite)
The word bimonthly is ambiguous and best avoided. Bimonthly can mean “twice a month” or “every two months”. The same is true of biyearly and biannually.
Relationships in time (indefinite)